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    建国70周年有感:漫谈铁路通信三十年巨变
    时间:2019-08-27 浏览次数:

        第一次参与设计的项目是山西阳泉至河北涉县一条运煤铁路阳涉线,这条铁路采用的通信传输方式是架空明线,就是在电杆上架设铜线和钢线,为调度通信、各站(公务)通信、区间养路通信和信号闭塞等提供传输通道。这种通信方式传输容量有限,保密性差,维护困难,且通信质量易受风雨雪等气候条件影响。尽管那个时期干线铁路已普遍采用大容量长途地埋通信电缆,国内首条采用光纤通信技术的干线铁路大秦线(大同至秦皇岛)也开始建设,但在跨越近百年、累计近六万公里的中国铁路线上,架空明线一直是其主要的通信传输媒介。

           这是1987年,正是这一年,华为通信技术有限公司在深圳正式注册成立。

           要完成各类通信业务,光有通信线路是不够的,还须有大量的通信设备传输设备、交换设备、电报设备、调度设备、电源设备等等,当时这些设备占据空间大,容量小,能耗高,所需维护作业人员多。记得毕业前夕,赴蚌埠铁路分局巢湖通信站实习,亲身感受到通信在铁路运输中的重要性,值班人员责任重大,精神高度集中,线路上出现的混线、绝缘不良、挂冰挂霜及设备异常都会直接影响通话质量,因此排查及处理噪音、啸叫、串音及通信中断等技术故障是他们工作的常态。

           1990年,兰青线(兰州至西宁)开始光缆通信技术改造,这是我院首次设计、西北首条使用光纤通信技术的铁路。所谓光纤通信,就是用光导纤维(玻璃丝)作为信息传输介质,传输信息时先把电信号转换成光信号,对方接收后再将光信号还原成电信号。光纤比金属线具有更大的传输容量,中继距离长、重量轻,无电磁干扰。那个时候中国尚无成套光缆生产技术,光通信设备基本依赖进口。本工程8芯光缆是日本在华合资企业生产的,34Mbit/s8Mbit/s准同步光设备来自飞利浦德国公司,不仅价格昂贵,采购过程也极其繁复。就全国铁路而言,在此后很长一段时期,多种通信模式并存,光设备与原有模拟设备之间接口极其复杂,通信全程全网的整体效能一时难以充分发挥。这些问题和不足是随着日后大规模光缆通信建设改造和国内通信技术的飞速发展,一步步得到解决的。

           列车是移动体,要解决列车司机与车站值班员、调度员之间的通信,必须通过无线通信方式实现。因此,铁路通信是有线、无线相结合方式,互相补充和备份。传统无线列车调度通信是一种单频点的模拟通信技术,仅能实现无线话音通信功能,因此迫切需要有新的移动通信技术,实现数据等业务的传送。

           青藏线是我国第一条采用GSM-R数字移动通信系统的铁路,该系统属引进、消化、吸收再创新技术,不仅可传送话音业务、调度业务,更重要的是可传送各种数据业务,为列车控制系统车地数据传输提供了强有力的保障。经过青藏高原独特自然环境试验验证和成功应用之后,伴随高铁的发展,全路陆续建成GSM-R数字移动通信体系,大大提高了铁路无线通信的技术水平。

           30多年来,铁路通信传输线路经历了架空明线、电缆、小芯数单条光缆、大芯数多条光缆的巨大变化;传输设备经历了载波设备、准同步数字传输设备、同步数字传输设备、光传送网设备的换代过程;电话交换设备经历了步进制交换、纵横制交换、程控交换、软交换的升级之路;无线通信经历了无线列调到GSM-R数字移动通信的飞跃发展。铁路通信已由传统单一的语音通信发展为集语音、数据、图像、多媒体、信息化于一体,逐步实现了数字化、集成化、模块化、少维护和免维护的目标,通信容量呈几何级数量剧增,设备基本国产化,通信质量发生了质的改变。不仅如此,通信技术已与电力、车辆、土木建筑等技术深度融合,并承载其各类数据信息的传送。

           铁路通信是伴随着中国通信业的飞速发展同步前行的。曾几何时,人们异地相互交流的主要方式只能是写信、发电报,通一次长途电话,需要通过电话员记录、等待;家庭装一部座机电话,须交可观的初装费,还得排队;电话里经常伴随杂音、噪声甚至串线;人人曾期望自己拥有一部手机……这些都是发生在不久前的故事。

           今天,中国已成为通信技术大国,以华为、中兴为代表的通信企业产品遍及全球。通信业仍处于快速发展之中,有线骨干传输网络更趋大容量、高速率,无线网络日益大带宽、低时延。这一切,不仅为铁路迈向智能化、现代化提供助力,也在不断改善着人们的生活。(路长平)

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